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Fungal microbiota associated with black point disease on durum wheat. Effects of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and cultivar

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Authors: C. García, D. Palmero, M. De Cara, A. Cruz y M. González Jaén
Issue: 108-3 (343-356)
Topic: Plant Production
Keywords: Fusarium proliferatum, Alternaria alternata, Triticum turgidum

Black point disease on durum wheat is defined as the discoloration of the embryo end. The embryo tip shows a black to brown discoloration that may extend into the crease of the kernel. Its incidence in the crop is extremely variable and depends largely on environmental conditions, thus, high humidity can increase black point. Their presence in durum wheat affects yield. Furthermore, pasta made from infected seed get black spots and odor. Black Point disease is not known at European level, but there are numerous studies to know their etilogy and factors affecting its appearance in countries like New Zealand, Australia, the United States or Canada. This paper tries to present this disease in Spain, determining the influence of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization and cultivar on the incidence of the disease. An experimental design based on 10 cultivars planted in plots with two irrigation treatments and two nitrogen fertilization treatments has been conducted. Analysis of infected seeds in moist chamber and culture media PDA and K revealed 12 different fungal genera, including A. alternata and F. proliferatum that were present in all samples. The study of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization showed significant differences in the incidence of black point but it was the 10 cultivars included in the trial which took greater importance from the point of view of the onset of the disease. The genotype was decisive in setting the disease level. Samples botanically described as Triticum turgidum subsp. turgidum convar. turgidum showed greater susceptibility. Pathogenicity tests with the three main fungi associated with black tip were negative for germination and plant emergence of wheat seedlings.

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